Biotechnology is a new high risk science that target life and its mechanism on earth to make world better place to live in for human. This science target designing, optimizing, developing and controlling Plant Molecular Markers, Phyto-hormones and growth hormones, Cell and Tissue culture, farm productivity, Protoplast culture. Somaclonal variations as breeding tool, Somatic Hybridization, Plant Transformation, Chloroplast Transformation, Genetically modified crops and animals (transgenic), Bio-fertilizers, Plant Growth promoting rhizo bacteria, Natural Pesticides (Biodegradable), Bio-safety and concerns
In simple language this science tries increasing quantity and quality of human food with genetic engineering and natural selection through farms to create a better product in taste, elements and color and user experience in kitchen. This science change genetic elements to create a similar, high growth product that can tolerate more in storage and processing steps from farm to kitchen.
But before start reading about Agriculture biotechnology its better to answer, what is Biotechnology:
What is biotechnology?
Strictly speaking, biotechnology is the use of a living organism for one’s own benefit. By this definition, biotechnology would date back to the very beginnings of civilization, when humankind first learned to cultivate crops and domesticate animals in a system of agriculture. When one thinks of modern biotechnology, however, gene splicing and recombinant organisms take center stage. Biotechnology was revolutionized when scientists first learned how to isolate and clone genes, allowing for genetic engineering.
Today, the biotechnology industry has grown and expanded to affect us on a day-to-day basis. Some statistics about biotechnology reflect the expansion of this industry:
- More than 325 million people worldwide have been helped by the more than 130 biotechnology drugs and vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Of the biotech medicines on the market, 70 percent were approved in the last six years.
- There are more than 350 biotech drug products and vaccines currently in clinical trials targeting more than 200 diseases, including various cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, AIDS and arthritis.
- Biotechnology is responsible for hundreds of medical diagnostic tests that keep the blood supply safe from the AIDS virus and detect other conditions early enough to be successfully treated. Home pregnancy tests are also biotechnology diagnostic products.
- Consumers already are enjoying biotechnology foods such as papaya, soybeans and corn. Hundreds of biopesticides and other agricultural products also are being used to improve our food supply and to reduce our dependence on conventional chemical pesticides.
- Environmental biotechnology products make it possible to clean up hazardous waste more efficiently by harnessing pollution-eating microbes without the use of caustic chemicals.
- Industrial biotechnology applications have led to cleaner processes that produce less waste and use less energy and water in such industrial sectors as chemicals, pulp and paper, textiles, food, energy, and metals and minerals. For example, most laundry detergents produced in the United States contain biotechnology-based enzymes.
- DNA fingerprinting, a biotech process, has dramatically improved criminal investigation and forensic medicine, as well as afforded significant advances in anthropology and wildlife management.
- There are 1,457 biotechnology companies in the United States, of which 342 are publicly held.
- Market capitalization, the total value of publicly traded biotech companies at market prices, was $224 billion as of early May 2002.
- The biotechnology industry has more than tripled in size since 1992, with revenues increasing from $8 billion in 1992 to $27.6 billion in 2001.
- The U.S. biotechnology industry currently employs 179,000 people; that’s more than all the people employed by the toy and sporting goods industries.
- Biotechnology is one of the most research-intensive industries in the world. The U.S. biotech industry spent $15.6 billion on research and development in 2001.
- The top five biotech companies spent an average of $89,400 per employee on R&D in 2000.
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
he Agricultural Science and Technology course is designed to teach essential concepts and understanding related to plant and animal life including biotechnology, the conservation of natural resources, and the impact of agriculture and natural resource utilization on the environment. Emphasis is placed on the role of agriculture in our society and the importance of agriculture to the welfare of the world. Basic personal and community leadership and safety, and agricultural mechanical technology are included as a part of the instructional program. Each student is expected to design and participate in a supervised agricultural experience.
Typical learning activities include hands-on learning experiences including performing basic principles of plant, soil, and animal science; studying and modeling the significance of humankind’s interrelationship with soil, water, and air; participating in FFA activities.
This course is a component of the following Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Pathways:
- Agricultural Mechanics and Technology
- Environmental and Natural Resources Management
- Plant and Animal Systems