Biotechnology refers to the use of living organisms, cells, and biological systems to develop and make products that improve our lives and the environment. It encompasses a range of industries, including medical biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology, and industrial biotechnology. In medical biotechnology, scientists use biotechnology techniques to develop new drugs and treatments for diseases. In agricultural biotechnology, genetic engineering is used to enhance the traits of crops to increase yield and improve resistance to pests and diseases. In industrial biotechnology, biotechnology techniques are used to produce bioplastics, biofuels, and other products.
Genetic engineering is a subset of biotechnology that involves the direct manipulation of an organism’s genetic material (DNA) to change its characteristics. It enables scientists to add, delete, or modify specific genes in an organism’s DNA. This can be done in order to enhance or eliminate specific traits, or to make an organism more resistant to diseases or environmental stressors. Genetic engineering has applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry, and has the potential to greatly impact many aspects of our lives. However, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and the responsible use of these technologies is the subject of ongoing debate and regulation.